Research Papers

Please find below the most prominent research papers on breast cancer, angiogenesis, optical technology, illumination, comparative clinical studies which support the theory and research behind Breast-I.

Ghartey FN, Watmough DJ, Debrah S, Morna M, and Anyanful A. Breast-i Is an Effective and Reliable Adjunct Screening Tool for Detecting Early Tumour Related Angiogenesis of Breast Cancers in Low Resource Sub-Saharan Countries. Intl. Journal of Breast Cancer, 2018. Article ID 2539056, 10 pages. (Publication on Ghanaian woman report a sensitivity for breast cancer of 94% with Breast-I. That program used clinical palpation and Breast-I on over 1000 women. This clinic has examined over 10,000 women using Breast-I and its precursor devices and shown remarkable results)

(You can access this article from the Table of Contents of Volume 2018, which is located at the following link:

Alternatively, you can access your article directly at the following location:

Labib, N A et al. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention (2013), 14, 4647- 4650. 0 (Labib and colleagues found in an investigation using Breastlight (a precursor to the pioneering Breast-I) a sensitivity for cancer of 93%.)

Brittenden J. Watmough D.J. Heys S.D. and Eremin O. [1995] Preliminary clinical evaluation of a combined optical Doppler ultrasound instrument for the detection of breast cancer. Brit. J. Radiol. 68, 1344 – 1348.

Watmough D.J. [1989]. Son et Lumiere; a combined Optical Doppler ultrasound approach to detection of breast cancer. Rad. Magazine

Jan. 1989.

Bundred N., Levack P., Watmough D.J., and Watmough J.A. [1986]. Preliminary results using computerised tele-Diaphanography for the investigation of breast disease. British J. Hospital Med. 37, 70-71.(Until development of modern LEDs  a  small useful device wasn’t  feasible. I commuted to Edinburgh over 18 months for this study and we made the equipment at Aberdeen)

Watmough D.J. [1982]. Diaphanography; Mechanism responsible for the images. Acta. Radiologica Oncol. 21, 11-15. (Watmough in 1982 showed that absorption of light by red blood cells and specifically presence of new vessels around cancers (angiogenesis or neovascularisation) cause observable shadows when light passes through breast tissues)

Cutler, M, Transillumination as an aid in the diagnosis of breast lesions, Surg Gynecol Obstet (1929), 48, 721-729. (American Surgeon Max Cutler in 1929 first demonstrated the use of light to examine the female breast and stressed the need not to use an excessive light intensity level as details of lesions within the tissues could be ‘washed away’.)

Breast Cancer Statistics

Breast cancer is the major cause of death in women under 50 years and second major cause of death among all women. 50% of women survive for 10 years after the first diagnosis of the disease but 50% do not.

The best hope of a cure is early detection and this also reduces the number of mastectomies. Currently NHS breast screening starts for women at age 50 years and is carried out at 3 yearly intervals until age 70 years.

If breast cancer can be detected early the five-year survival rate is 99%… If the breast cancer is detected at a later stage, the treatment is more invasive and the survival rates decline significantly.

Susan G. Komen

Breast changes can happen for many reasons, and most aren’t serious…
However, if you find changes that aren’t normal for you, it’s best to see your GP as soon as possible.


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